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Apa Style

Apa Style

The introduction of the paper begins here. Double-space throughout the paper, including the title page, abstract, body of the document, and references. The body of the paper begins on a new page (page 3). Subsections of the body of the paper do not begin on a new page. The title of the paper (in uppercase and lowercase letters) is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. The introduction (which is not labeled) begins on the line following the paper title. Headings are used to organize the document and reflect the relative importance of sections. For example, many empirical research articles utilize Methods, Results, Discussion, and References headings. In turn, the Method section often has subheadings of Participants, Apparatus, and Procedure. Main headings (when the paper has either one or two levels of headings) use centered uppercase and lowercase letters (e.g., Method, Results). Subheadings (when the paper has two levels of headings) are italicized and use flush left, uppercase and lowercase letters (e.g., Participants, Apparatus).

Text citations. Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the author(s) and date(s) of the sources. This is to give proper credit to the ideas and words of others. The reader can obtain the full source citation from the list of references that follows the body of the paper. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of the publication appears in parenthesis following the identification of the authors, e.g., Eby (2001). When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses, separated by semicolons, e.g. (Eby and Mitchell, 2001; Passerallo, Pearson, & Brock, 2000). When a source that has three, four, or five authors is cited, all authors are included the first time the source is cited. When that source is cited again, the first authors’ surname and “et al.” are used.

When a source that has two authors is cited, both authors are cited every time. If there are six or more authors to be cited, use the first authors’ surname and “et al.” the first and each subsequent time it is cited. When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page number as part of the citation. A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence. A longer quote of 40 or more words should appear (without quotes) in block format with each line indented five spaces from the left margin.

The references section begins on a new page. The heading is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. The references (with hanging indent) begin on the line following the references heading. Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors. Most reference entries have three components:

1. Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors. When there are seven or more authors, list the first six and then use “et al.” for remaining authors. If no author is identified, the title of the document begins the reference.

2. Year of Publication: In parenthesis following authors, with a period following the closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identified, use “n.d.” in parenthesis following the authors.

3. Source Reference: Includes title, journal, volume, pages (for journal article) or title, city of publication, publisher (for book).


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