During World War II, Nazi Germany, under the rule of Adolf Hitler, rule almost every part of Europe. From the Atlantic Ocean deep into the Soviet Union, and from Norway to North Africa . That bring out Hitler’s plane to have people in Europe serve the German. The ideal of Nazi was German people must have blond hair and blue eyes so they went around in the Europe took the children who looked like German from their parents then they made these children go to school in Germany. One of the Hitler’s main goals was to wipe out all Jews in Europe, their genocide of European Jews was called “Holocaust”.
In the west of Poland, the Nazi built many camps where prisoners were hold. The Nazi forces the people who lived in the area to moved and took their land to make room for camp’s settle. They also forced these people to work in the camps and sent good number of people to the force labor camp. The order to get rid of the Jews, Hitler army rounded up all the Jews and sends them to camps.
The three main kinds of camps were concentration camps, force labor camps and death camps. The concentration camps were setup because they need a place to put the people who they arrested because normal jails was too small so they put them in the camp. The force labor camps were setup all the Eastern Europe occupied Russia, and the condition there was the same as the concentration maybe worst. Because the Nazi used them without give them food and gives them a few cloth again harsh weather as they did back- breaking labor. Even the camps were built with Jewish forced labor. And the death camps were mainly extermination camps, totally different from the concentration camps. Because they took more than thousands of lives everyday. Such camps “show the full extent of the Nazi hatred of the Jews, and their determination to destroy them” (Rogasky 78).
The largest Nazi concentration camp was located thirty-seven miles west of Krakow, and that camp was named “Auschwitz”, Most Jews were held there. Three hundred Jews from Os’wiecim were forced to work on the construction of the camp. During the first period, most of them were Polish political prisoners. “On March 1, 1941, the prison population was 10,900 most of it still Polish”. (Gutman107).
People knew Auschwitz as the harshest of the Nazi concentration camps. The Nazi system of torturing prisoners was to do cruel things to them. They used one of the camp’s building which they called “Block11” for the harsh punishment. There was a special bunker erected there. “The Black Wall” in the front of that building, where the normal execution of prisoners were held. And at the camp’s gate, there was a large seal which said “ ‘ Arbeit macht frei’ (Work leads to freedom)” (Gutman107).
In March 1941, Himmler who was the head of the SS and German police ordered to a second section of the camp to be built, which was much larger than the first one, and were located 1.9 miles from the original camp. It was called “Auschwitz II- Birkenau, built on farmland surrounded by beautiful birch trees. Birkenau was divided into nine subunits, each isolated form others by electrically charged barbed-wire fences” (Berenbaum 134). In the same year, “intensive work on the construction of barracks and other camp installation started in Auschwitz II” (Gutman). “In the gas chamber of Auschwitz II , the Nazi killed Jews and others victims with prussic acid gas, known by its commercial name, “Zyklon B.” it was a regular and highly poisonous. Most concentration camps used this gas to kill rats or fly then the Nazi began to used it with human in September 1941, gassing continued until January 1945. (Berenbaum)
A Frauenabteilung (Women’s section) was established in the Auschwitz I in March 1942 than it was moved on to a section of Birkenau in August 16, 1942. The first group of women to be the prison in the section in Auschwitz I were 999 German women and same number of Jewish women from Poprad. By the end of March more than 6,000 women were held in the new section. (Gutman)
The Auschwitz III or Buna-Monowitz were built near Monowitz, in the same time forty-five sub camps were built. In Birkenau the gas chambers and the crematoria of the Auschwitz killing center operated and the Auschwitz III was mainly forced-labor camps. (Gutman)
In October 1943, 667 prisoners were escape under the most difficult conditions but 270 were caught not far away for the camp and after that ,they got killed. On April, 1944, two young Jewish prisoners were escape from the camp and they made it without get caught by the Nazi. (Gutman)
During November and December 1944, the technical installing of the gas chambers and crematoria I and II were dismantled, in the middle of January 1945, the Soviet army started an offensive in the direction of Krakow and Auschwitz, the Nazi began to withdrawal. The fifty-eight thousand prisoners, most of them were Jewish were driven out of the camps to put on Death Marches. Most of them were killed. On January 27, in the afternoon, Soviet army entered Auschwitz. In Auschwitz II, they found 600 bodies who had been killed by the Nazi, an hour before the camp was free. However 7,650 sick prisoners were saved: 1,200 in Auschwitz I, 5,800 in Auschwitz II, and 650 in Auschwitz III. In the warehouse, the Soviet found 350,000 men’s suits, 837,000 outfits for women, and large amount of kids clothing, they also found ten of thousands pair of shoes and 7.7 tons of human hair in paper bags, pack for shipping. (Gutman)
The intention was not only get rid of the Jews, the Nazi wanted to make money from their murder as well. Plans were drawn up to make sure this would happen. The extermination machinery was made to pay for itself. For example, the railways billed Eichmann’s department for talking Jews to the camps, and the bill was paid from stolen Jewish property. Also they took watches, pens and wallets in good condition were sold or given as a gifts to wounded soldiers. Woman’s hair were collected, cleaned and woven into glove and sock liners for submarine crews. Clothes in the good condition were sold at the “reasonable price’, to relief organization inside and outside the country. But the clothes made some problem because of the blood spots so they had to reduce the price down. The Nazi were officially instructed to call Jewish “Goods stolen concealed, and hoarded by Jews.” The material which taken from Operation Reinhard alone was 180 million reichmarks and it was about $72 milli!
The number of Jews murdered in the gas chambers of Auschwitz II must be up to 1 million and a half people that included women and baby. And a great number of Jewish were killed during the World War II as well.
The Auschwitz took about two million life, it was a largest camp in the Poland. Prisoners in the Auschwitz just had to work all day long with giving them food, and Auschwitz II where the gas chambers had killed good numbers of Jews. It was a place where they killed all the Jewish.
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