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Reconstruction was needed for this country to come back together after the Civil War. The north and the south had been divided and didn’t know how to come back together again without intervention from the government. I believe that Reconstruction helped the African-Americans get some of the freedom that equally deserved. I also believe that Reconstruction helped the north and the south reunite as a country again. The Freedman’s Bureau did it’s best to educate and protect the former slaves. The U.S. Congress also tried it’s hardest to fulfill the promises made to former slaves by passing 2 bills that had been vetoed by President Johnson. President Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction involved letting any rebel state take its place back in the Union as long as they met the conditions of the ten percent plan. They way the ten percent plan worked was they state had to have ten percent of the people who had voted in the 1860 election to take an oath. Once that state reached ten percent of the people taking oath, the state could form a state government. President Johnson’s plan was based mostly the same as President Lincoln’s except he didn’t think that the southern states had ever been out of the Union, and there were to be no trials for treason.

Ku Klux Clan - The KKK was created after the Civil War as means of rebelling against the Reconstruction plans and the plans to give the African-Americans equal rights. The KKK killed the freedman and their supporters.

Tenure of Office Act - The Tenure of Office Act was set in place to prevent the U.S. president to remove civil officers without consent from the Senate. This was put into place by radical republicans mainly to prevent President Johnson from removing any of the cabinet members who supported the harsh Reconstruction policies of Congress.

Election of 1876 - In the 1876 election Tilden was the winner when the votes were counted but in 3 states both parties claimed victory. When all was said and done they had to count the electoral votes and Hayes ended up winning.

Freedman’s Bureau - The Freedman’s Bureau was set into place in 1865 to help the former slaves learn how to live free. They were fed, helped to find work, and educated.

Settling The West As Americans made their way to the west they used what was called the Oregon Trail. It took 6 months to travel from the east coast to the west coast. They traveled in covered wagons, traveling at only one mile per hour. Many American headed west in order to mine for gold. As they made their way to he west coast they often trampled many Native American territories. In the process of trampling through Native American territories, they were often attacked as the Native Americans were trying to live their lives and the whites were invading there land. As the whites moved through the Indian territories they scared off the buffalo which was the Indians major source of food, clothing, hunting supplies, and fuel. The whites and the Indians fought over land all the time, and most of the time the whites forced the Indians to sign treaties giving up all rights to their land. In 1830 Congress passed a the Indian Removal Act. This act forced Indians from all over the country to live on one big reservation in what is now Oklahoma. During this time is when the cowboys played a big part in American history. They cowboy helped America by driving huge herds of cattle across the country. Cattle ranching was the most profitable jobs at this time in history. Between 1870 and 1900 farming became a major source of income for most people. Most settled into farms on the Great Plains where it was cheaper to farm because they didn’t need fences, and the land was cheaper.

Homestead Act - In 1862 the Homestead Act was passed, providing 160 acres of public land free to any adult citizen or head of family who had lived on the land for five years.

Ghost Dance Movement - This was brought about by a Paiute prophet named Wovoka in 1888. Wovoka announced that he had a vision that the whites would be destroyed and the old way of Indian life would be restored without having to go to war.

Dawes Severalty Act - This is where grants of 80 - 160 acres of land were offered to each Indian of household but actually ownership was withheld for 25 years to guard against sales to speculators. As a unintentional result this lead to a weakening in the tribal structure, a reservation life of poverty, and disease.

In the 1880's new immigrants started coming to the U.S. These new immigrants were darker skinned then the old immigrants, were illiterate and were unfamiliar with constitutional governments. When they came to America they were usually poor because they had came from poor counties, and were willing to work on American farms for very low wages.

Sherman Anti-Trust Act - Proposed by Senator John Sherman, this act made it illegal to try to monopolize any trade or commerce.

Samuel Gompers - Emigrated to New York with his family in 1863 he worked as a cigar maker and a union organizer. Gompers argued that unions should avoid political involvement and focus on economic goals, bringing about change through strikes and boycotts.

John D Rokerfeller - Started the largest oil refinery in 1863 and bought out competitors to gain control of the oil refinery business.

Thomas Edison - Edison was America’s premiere inventor, he patented 1093 inventions. Some of Edison’s greatest invention included the phonograph and the incandescent lamp.

Social Darwinism - Theory that persons, groups, and races are subject to the same laws of natural selection as Charles Darwin had proposed for plants and animals in nature.

Eugene V. Debs - he became an early advocate of industrial unionism, and he became president of the American Railway Union in 1893. His involvement in the Pullman Strike led to a six-month prison term in 1895.

Jacob Coxey - led the group, which hoped to persuade Congress to authorize public-works programs to provide jobs.


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