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This article starts off with an introduction to the experiments that were used to determine gender identity, object relational functioning and body image. Bassett gives examples of different studies used in showing male’s anorexia nervosa. Stating that a few studies have been reported on this matter and he wanted to do a study and see of it was in correlation to the statistics.

He first found males with previous anorexic history through clinical resources. Then the hypothesis followed which are:

1. Anorexic males are conflicted about their masculinity and disavow it, more at the

Conscious level then unconscious level.

2. Anorexic males are impaired in the developmental level of self and object

3. Anorexic males experience continuing distortions on body image, even after they

Recover from underweight status. That is, they perceive their body shape

He used eight males in his study performing four experiments. The first experiment was the Franck Drawling Completion Test, which shows unconscious gender identification by using seven line figures. The second was the Bam Sex-Role Inventory which is based on conscious gender identification using a short form. The third is The Assessment of Qualitive and Structural Dimensions of Object Representation which is based on the conceptual level of themselves and their object representation using questions and them writing the answers. The last experiment was the Perceived Somatotype Scale which was based on body image accuracy by identifying a drawing on a figure scale.

In each test, the results varied but none of the findings were in correlation to the statistics. He had used a smaller number of males and therefore, could not compare his findings to the statistics. If a larger study had been done, the findings most likely would have fit the statistics.

I never really knew anything about a males anorexia nervosa and this article taught me about how they perceive themselves and why it is caused. There is little research done but many people want to more about the cause and cure for this disease. I think it is important for social work because is shows homosexual anorexic males, which are a good example of being open-minded, caring for everyone and caring for different types of people I will be working with in my job.

This article starts with an introduction to the welfare states. It says their needs to be a further debate on the Veit-Wilson debate on welfare states and the crisis they are in. He shows you cannot clearly even define a welfare state using words that have many different meanings.

The Veit-Wilson argument in 2000 debated over if welfare states could be defined from non-welfare states. Wilcott seems to have a sarcastic approach to the Veit-Wilson debate. When spoken about how some people get welfare he adds “rather than serving all citizens,”. This debate argues about the true definition of a welfare state and how it should be defined and who should receive the benefits from it.

The next part of the article actually goes into the three definitions of “Welfare State” which is very important to understand this article. They are as follows:

1 (the dominant characteristics of) the postwar “golden age” period of capitalism-

Usually in the form of “Keynesian Welfare State”;

2. A distinct ontology or form of the state (what the state is), usually involving

Guarantees of “full social citizenship rights”; or

3. Sectors of a state activity, such as income maintenance, health care and education

(a welfare state is something that has, or refers to things it does).

The “Era” of the Welfare State explores the historical development of the welfare state and how the modern welfare state came into play. The post-war period was the most influential time for the welfare system to be used and brought about in this country. The employment was down and illness and retirement was everywhere. At this time, many social programs came into the picture. Then it goes into the dynamics of the welfare state and the ideas surrounding it.

Bob Jessup (1999) named the “Keynesian National Welfare State” (KNWS). This idea is the process of national and state development of the welfare states. Many government powers changed the face in the welfare programs.

In conclusion, he found we need a clearer definition of what a welfare state is and what it does, and then it can be determined how a state is one who benefits from the programs. Yet, he does agree that the Veit-Wilson debate is an important part in the development of a “clearer welfare state”.

I think this article is very important to the social work profession. I now know how the welfare state came about and why we need it and how it is used. At first, I was a little unclear of what the article was saying but when it does hit you, its like a slap in the face. I think social workers need a better understanding of the system before you can work in it. I think this article described the history and the importance of it perfectly.

When sexually abused children are placed in residual care there are many conflicts that can arise. The first issue is that the children do not know or trust the therapist or the social worker. They have always either been misled or abused by adults that they thought they trusted. The children are scared by the exploitation and abusiveness and therefore carry it into their adult lives with impacts on their emotional and psychological factors.

There are four relationship dynamics described in this journal and clinical examples. The first relationship issue is abuser-victim dichotomy. Prior 1996 “defines this as the relentless reliving of abusive relationships, either as a victim or a victimizer” (62). The victims are comfortable with the abuse and think they deserve it.

The second relationship problem experienced by victims of sexual abuse is when the victim will try to identify with the aggressor. In the article a case example of a 17 year old male wanted to be just like his step-father as soon as he got out of the program. The children identify with them so that they don’t feel like anything is wrong with the abuse.

The third problem that arises is self-blame. The child victim believes they have done something wrong to bring on the abuse. The children try to invoke rejection and aggression from the residual staff. They believe they have no control over themselves and they think the staff sets them up. They don’t trust the staff and they think they really don’t care what happens to them.

The last relationship problem is perverse object contact. The abused child thinks the only way they can have a relationship is through verbal, emotional and sexual abuse. In the journal there is an example of a 12 year old who was sexually abused. He needed to be constantly restrained from harming himself. It turns out he did this to see if the staff really cared about his well being.

It is very important to establish a trusting relationship with the abused child. If there are no relationships established the child may withhold valuable information that may be crucial to helping them. The staff needs to recognize the difficulties working with an abuse victim and they need to try and work through them. They need to talk to the child and learn about their destructive past so that they can help reverse the vicious cycle. This will in turn, help the child have healthy relationships as an adult.

This article helped me understand mentalities and the issue involved with child abuse. As a social work student, I believe it is very important to learn about the abuse and how to deal with it. There are many issues surrounding abuse and how to deal with a child who doesn’t want our help. This article was very informative on the key issues of abuse and case examples to back up the theories.


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